The interest of the ship industry for the study of new materials, coatings and surface treatments comes from the need to meet several requirements. For example, coatings and surface treatments, but also intelligent surfaces, are used to limit the environmental impact of marine vehicles in terms of reduced energy consumption (reduction of the strength or power generation), but also chemical and the biological pollution (contamination of non-native species). In recent years a growing interest has also been devoted to materials other than metal for the construction of large boats or parts of them. The use of composite materials, answers the need to increase the vehicle performance in terms of speed and load capacity, improve on-board comfort, and reduce the disturbing effects of vibration and noise on the on-board instrumentation. Finally, smart materials, that are able to appropriately react to a given load or monitor their own health status, are important to ensure greater safety in maritime transport.